Learning check

1. Comprehension questions

No study aids

Answer the following questions:

 

a) Where did the Muslims flee to?

 

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b) When did The Partition take place?

 

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c) What happened to a lot of women and children?

 

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d) Who were the perpetrators?

 

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e) Why was it difficult for the women to return to their families?

 

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f) Describe the deterioration of the old woman.

 

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g) Explain the ending.

 

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Text-related assignment

1. Written assignment

Pretend that you are the liaison officer.

Write a report to your superior officer in which you give an account of the situation. Use about 200 words.

 

1. Historical context: Jawaharlal Nehru’s Speech “Tryst With Destiny”

a) Read and make a rhetorical analysis of Jawaharlal Nehru’s speech “Tryst With Destiny” below.

See Toolbox p. 329.

 

 You may also want to listen to the first part of the speech: http://www.allvoices.com/people/Jawaharlal_Nehru/video/44950771

  

b) Describe the atmosphere and the hopes for the future expressed in Nehru’s speech and compare them to the situation described in “The Dutiful Daughter”.

  

Tryst With Destiny

By Jawaharlal Nehru

 

Speech delivered in the Constituent Assembly, New Delhi, on August 14, 1947, the eve of independence

Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance. It is fitting that at this solemn moment we take the pledge of dedication to the service of India and her people and to the still larger cause of humanity.

At the dawn of history India started on her unending quest, and trackless centuries are filled with her striving and the grandeur of her success and her failures. Through good and ill fortune alike she has never lost sight of that quest or forgotten the ideals which gave her strength. We end today a period of ill fortune and India discovers herself again. The achievement we celebrate today is but a step, an opening of opportunity, to the greater triumphs and achievements that await us. Are we brave enough and wise enough to grasp this opportunity and accept the challenge of the future?

Freedom and power bring responsibility. The responsibility rests upon this Assembly, a sovereign body representing the sovereign people of India. Before the birth of freedom we have endured all the pains of labour and our hearts are heavy with the memory of this sorrow. Some of those pains continue even now. Nevertheless, the past is over and it is the future that beckons to us now.

That future is not one of ease or resting but of incessant striving so that we may fulfil the pledges we have so often taken and the one we shall take today. The service of India means the service of the millions who suffer. It means the ending of poverty and ignorance and disease and inequality of opportunity. The ambition of the greatest man of our generation has been to wipe every tear from every eye. That may be beyond us, but as long as there are tears and suffering, so long our work will not be over.

And so we have to labour and to work, and work hard, to give reality to our dreams. Those dreams are for India, but they are also for the world, for all the nations and peoples are too closely knit together today for any one of them to imagine that it can live apart. Peace has been said to be indivisible; so is freedom, so is prosperity now, and so also is disaster in this One World that can no longer be split into isolated fragments.

To the people of India, whose representatives we are, we make an appeal to join us with faith and confidence in this great adventure. This is no time for petty and destructive criticism, no time for ill-will or blaming others. We have to build the noble mansion of free India where all her children may dwell.

The appointed day has come – the day appointed by destiny – and India stands forth again, after long slumber and struggle, awake, vital, free and independent. The past clings on to us still in some measure and we have to do much before we redeem the pledges we have so often taken. Yet the turning-point is past, and history begins anew for us, the history which we shall live and act and others will write about.

It is a fateful moment for us in India, for all Asia and for the world. A new star rises, the star of freedom in the East, a new hope comes into being, a vision long cherished materializes. May the star never set and that hope never be betrayed!

We rejoice in that freedom, even though clouds surround us, and many of our people are sorrowstricken and difficult problems encompass us. But freedom brings responsibilities and burdens and we have to face them in the spirit of a free and disciplined people.

On this day our first thoughts go to the architect of this freedom, the Father of our Nation [Gandhi], who, embodying the old spirit of India, held aloft the torch of freedom and lighted up the darkness that surrounded us. We have often been unworthy followers of his and have strayed from his message, but not only we but succeeding generations will remember this message and bear the imprint in their hearts of this great son of India, magnificent in his faith and strength and courage and humility. We shall never allow that torch of freedom to be blown out, however high the wind or stormy the tempest.

Our next thoughts must be of the unknown volunteers and soldiers of freedom who, without praise or reward, have served India even unto death.

We think also of our brothers and sisters who have been cut off from us by political boundaries and who unhappily cannot share at present in the freedom that has come. They are of us and will remain of us whatever may happen, and we shall be sharers in their good and ill fortune alike.

The future beckons to us. Whither do we go and what shall be our endeavour? To bring freedom and opportunity to the common man, to the peasants and workers of India; to fight and end poverty and ignorance and disease; to build up a prosperous, democratic and progressive nation, and to create social, economic and political institutions which will ensure justice and fullness of life to every man and woman.

We have hard work ahead. There is no resting for any one of us till we redeem our pledge in full, till we make all the people of India what destiny intended them to be. We are citizens of a great country on the verge of bold advance, and we have to live up to that high standard. All of us, to whatever religion we may belong, are equally the children of India with equal rights, privileges and obligations. We cannot encourage communalism or narrow-mindedness, for no nation can be great whose people are narrow in thought or in action.

To the nations and peoples of the world we send greetings and pledge ourselves to cooperate with them in furthering peace, freedom and democracy.

And to India, our much-loved motherland, the ancient, the eternal and the ever-new, we pay our reverent homage and we bind ourselves afresh to her service.

 

Jai Hind!

Glossary

tryst                                                     stævnemøde

 

incessant                    uophørlig

 

Con’stituent Assembly   grundlovgivende forsamling

 

indi’visible                      udelelig

 

eve                                                                  aften

 

prosperity      fremgang, velstand

 

a’ttainment                                                opnåelse

 

petty                                smålig

 

re’deem                                                           indfri

 

mansion         palæ, stor ejendom

 

pledge                                                              løfte

 

dwell                         opholde sig

 

sub’stantially                                           væsentligt

 

slumber                         slummer

 

but                                                                     kun

 

cherish              værne om, nære

 

rarely                                                         sjældent

 

ma’terialize    blive til virkelighed

 

find ’utterance                          (her) komme til orde

 

encompass                      omgive

 

’solemn                                                      højtidelig

 

aloft                         højt, i vejret

 

dedi’cation                                                   troskab

 

torch                                 fakkel

 

dawn                                                            daggry

 

imprint                              aftryk

 

quest                                                søgen, stræben

 

tempest                            storm

 

’grandeur                                               storslåethed

 

whither                          hvorhen

 

grasp                                                               gribe

 

en’deavour                    stræben

 

’sovereign                                                  suveræn

 

verge                                   kant

 

en’dure                                                        udholde

 

bold                                  dristig

 

beckon                                                   vinke, kalde

 

’reverent                       ærbødig

 

 

 

pay ’homage                      hylde

 

 

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